The 3rd Cycle in the Bologna Process: Doctoral Studies（博洛尼亚进程的第三圈：博士生教育）
Günther Gell 教授
（Medical University of Graz, Austria）
Launched in 1999 by the Ministers of Education and university leaders of 29 countries, the Bologna Process aims to create a European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010; it has further developed into a major reform encompassing 46 countries. Taking part in the Bologna Process is a voluntary decision made by each country and its higher education community to endorse the principles underlined in the European Higher Education Area. The reforms are based on ten simple objectives which governments and institutions are currently implementing. Most importantly, all participating countries have agreed on a comparable three cycle degree system for undergraduates (Bachelor degrees) and graduates (Master and PhD degrees). The presentation will give a short introduction to European higher education and the Bologna Process in general and stress the extremely decentralised mode of defining and implementing common aims in higher education in Europe (in this context Europe means not only the European Union but the much wider entity as defined by membership in the council of Europe). The main part of the presentation deals with doctoral studies and explains the recommendations made in the framework of the Bologna Process — in particular the ten Salzburg principles and the ensuing statement of the Ministers of Education and Research in Bergen. The headlines of the Salzburg Principles are: 1. The core component of doctoral training is the advancement of knowledge through original research; 2. Embedding in institutional strategies and policies; 3. The importance of diversity; 4. Doctoral candidates as early stage researchers; 5. The crucial role of supervision and assessment; 6. Achieving critical mass; 7. Duration; 8. The promotion of innovative structures; 9. Increasing mobility; 10. Ensuring appropriate funding. The role of different actors and the mechanisms to implement a common European framework for doctoral studies will be discussed. In the last part the new PhD-Curriculum of the Medical University of Graz will serve as an example for the implementation of the Bologna principles in a University with different traditions. As a reference for material about the Bologna process may serve the web site of the European University Association: www.eua.be.